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HW6: Grammars and Dialogue

Problem 1 (10 points)

(a) [5 pts] Define what open class words and closed class words are.

(b) [5 pts]] For the parts-of-speech noun, verb, determiner, adjective, preposition, and adverb, say whether they are open or closed class, and give an example word for each part-of-speech.

Problem 2 (20 points)

The sentence I saw the man with a telescope is ambiguous. Given the lexicon below, draw the two derivations for the sentence I saw the man with a telescope.

 I := np
man := n
saw := s\np
  a := np/n with := (n\n)/np
 I := s/(s\np)
telescope := n
saw := (s\np)/np
  the := np/n with := ((s\np)\(s\np))/np

Indicate which derivation corresponds to the man having the telescope and which one corresponds to the speaker using the telescope to see.

a) Provide the derivation that corresponds to the man having the telescope.
b) Provide the derivation that corresponds to the speaker using the telescope to see.

 Note: you only need the rules of function application to do this problem:

  Forward application:    X/Y   Y  => X (>)
  Backward application:  Y   X\Y => X (<)

Also note that you need to select the appropriate categories from the above lexicon -- you don't need all of them.

Problem 3 (20 points)

The sentence the man that I think that Mary saw walks has a relative clause with a long distance dependency (in which "man" is the thing that Mary sees).

(a) [12 pts] Provide a derivation for the sentence (which must result in "s"). In addition to the lexicon from problem 2, you'll need to use some of the following lexical entries:

 Mary := np
 that := s/s
 walks := s\np
 think := s\np
 Mary := s/(s\np)
 that := (n\n)/(s\np)
 walks := (s\np)/np
 think := (s\np)/np
  that := (n\n)/(s/np)

 think := (s\np)/s

You will need the composition rules for this derivation:

  Forward composition:       X/Y   Y/Z => X/Z (>B)
  Backward composition:    Y\Z   X\Y => X\Z (<B)

(b) [1 pts] Name a derived category from your derivation above that is not also a lexical category.

(b) [3 pts] Name two categories from the lexicons in problem 2 and problem 3a that create direct recursion?

(c) [4 pts] Why is recursion necessary for analyzing the syntax of human languages?

Problem 4 (30 points)

Go to one of the following online chatbots:

Have a conversation with at least 5 turns with two of the chatbots. Write down both conversations (include them in your homework submission). For each conversaton, identify instances where each of the four Gricean maxims (Quantity, Quality, Relevance, Manner) were violated by the chatbot during the conversation, saying what the maxim is and how it was violated. Which of the chatbots do you think best obeyed the Gricean maxims?

Problem 5 (20 points)

Pick one of the following statements and write one to two paragraphs that argues for or against it:

  1. It would be a great idea to have a voice-activated TV.
  2. One does not need to understand what is being said in order to carry on a conversation.
  3. A dialogue system must be embodied to achieve true conversational capabilities.
  4. The Chinese room argument is right: machines will never actually be able to think because they are just manipulating symbols.

You should use concepts from the dialogue system component, such as (but not necessarily limited to) closed/open domains, depth of analysis, the uncanny valley, turn taking, and emergence.